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18th Annual Congress on Pharmacology and Toxicology, will be organized around the theme “”
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Pharmacology deals with the origin of drugs, their characteristics and their effects, such as biological, chemical or therapeutic, on a living system. Drugs can refer to many different substances and are defined as any substance that exerts an effect on a cell, tissue or organ in the body. The two major areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics focuses on the effect that a drug can have on the biology of the body. Rather, pharmacokinetics focuses on how the body affects the drug, in terms of absorption, metabolism, distribution, and elimination.
Toxicology is the scientific study of the adverse effects that occur in living organisms as a result of chemicals. This involves observing and reporting symptoms that occur as a result of exposure to toxic substances. There are different branches of toxicology called sub-disciplines or sub-specialties, each of which focuses on particular aspects of toxicology. They are toxicogenomics, aquatic toxicology, chemical toxicology, ecotoxicology, clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, regulatory toxicology, environmental toxicology, medical toxicology and occupational toxicology.
Ethnopharmacology studies natural medicines derived from plants and other substances traditionally used by groups of people to treat various human diseases. From aspirin to morphine to the cancer drug Taxol, most of the drugs we rely on today are plant-derived. The cross-cultural study of drugs that are derived from natural substances such as fungi and plants is known as ethnopharmacology. Although these herbs have been used often in traditional medicine for many, many years, there is still a lot to be learned from them.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect the cellular function of the nervous system and the neural mechanisms by which they influence behavior. Neuropharmacology has two main components: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior, including the study of how drug addiction and addiction affect the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions. Psychopharmacology is the scientific study of the effects of drugs on mood, sensations, thinking and behavior. It differs from neuropsychopharmacology, which emphasizes the correlation between drug-induced changes in the functioning of cells of the nervous system and changes in consciousness and behavior.
Clinical pharmacology is the study of drugs in humans. It is underpinned by the basic science of pharmacology, with additional emphasis on the application of pharmacological principles and methods in the real world. Its field of application is wide, from the discovery of new target molecules to the effects of drug use on entire populations.
Nursing pharmacology helps nurses understand how drugs work in the body. They allow them to understand the therapeutic effects, to anticipate and to recognize the potential side effects or the toxicities of the drugs administered by the patients. In today's drug therapy, nurses, along with physicians and pharmacists, participate in a system of checks and balances designed to promote beneficial effects and minimize harm. Nurses are particularly important in this system because it is the nurse and not the doctor or pharmacist who most closely monitors the patient's condition.
Environmental pharmacology is a special branch of pharmacology. It involves the study of interactions between genes, toxins and drugs and deals with environmental sciences, medicine, ecology, genetics and chemistry. This method implemented to amalgamate the presence of pharmaceutical products and their metabolites in the environment. Pharmaceuticals and household cleaning products access the environment by various means and affect flora and fauna and modulate the ecosystem. Eco pharmacology and eco pharmacovigilance are promoters of green health.
Genetic toxicity is described as the harmful chemicals that damage the genetic information in cells. Exposure to this type of chemical and biological agent leads to epigenetic alternations which result in a variety of diseases, mainly cancer. An increased incidence of mutational events in human eggs or sperm could lead to an increase in the incidence of genetic diseases and disabilities in future generations. In contrast, the effects on somatic cells do not pose a threat to future generations, as they are not transmitted genetically beyond the individual in whom they occur. Genetic toxicology is a branch of the field of toxicology that assesses the effects of chemical and physical agents on inherited material (DNA) and on genetic processes in living cells.
In medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are discovered and / or designed. The drug discovery process involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening and testing of therapeutic efficacy. Historically, drugs were discovered by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by a chance discovery, such as penicillin. Drug testing is the collection and analysis of blood, urine, hair, or saliva for the presence of chemicals and contaminants left in the body as a result of drug use.
Cardiovascular pharmacology deals with the study of the effects of drugs on the heart or circulatory system. It primarily contributes to the safety profile of potential new drugs and provides pharmacological data that can be used for the optimization of other compounds and the ultimate selection of compounds suitable for clinical development. Heart drugs affect heart function in three main ways. They can affect the strength of the heart muscle contraction, they can affect the heartbeat rate or heart rate, or they can affect the regularity of the heartbeat.
Forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical chemistry to facilitate medical or legal investigations into death, poisoning, and drug use. The primary concern of forensic toxicology is not the legal outcome of the toxicological investigation or the technology used, but rather the obtaining and interpretation of the results. Toxicological analysis can be performed on different types of samples. A forensic toxicologist should consider the context of an investigation, especially any physical symptoms recorded and any evidence gathered at a crime scene that may limit the search, such as pill bottles, powders, traces of residue and any available chemicals.
Pharmacological tests include both pharmacological stress tests and nuclear stress tests. While the pharmacological stress test is set up after the activity test, it is an analytical system in which the cardiovascular anxiety affected by pharmacological operators is shown in patients with reduced or reduced useful limit. In patients who cannot exercise. And the pharmacological nuclear stress test is a demonstrative test used to assess blood flow to the heart. In the middle of the test, a small measure of radioactive tracer is infused into a vein. A single camera, called a gamma camera, identifies the radiation emitted by the tracer to create PC images of the heart.
Pharmaceutical chemistry is considered pharmaceutical, with deep roots in the frontier of chemistry and science with pharmacology, studying the design, synthesis and development of biologically active molecules and drugs for therapeutic purposes. Identify, synthesize and develop new chemical compounds suitable for therapeutic utilize is the major aim of pharmaceutical chemistry. This includes the study of existing drugs, their biological properties and their quantitative structure-activity relationship.